Gary Knoppers

Gary Knoppers

Endowed Professor
John A. O’Brien Professor of Theology
Biblical Studies/Christianity and Judaism in Antiquity


B.A., Philosophy, Calvin College College (1979)

M.Div., Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary (1982)

M.A., Harvard University, Near Eastern Studies (1986)

Ph.D., Harvard University, Near Eastern Studies (1988)

Research and Teaching Interests

Old Testament/Hebrew Bible, Ancient Historiography, Ancient Israelite and Near Eastern History, Ancient Near Eastern and Biblical Law, Biblical Theology, The Books of Samuel-Kings, Chronicles, and Ezra-Nehemiah, Comparative Ancient Near Eastern Religions, Early Jewish and Samaritan Relations, Early Judaism, Inner Scriptural Exegesis, Syro-Palestinian Archaeology, Textual Criticism

Recent Publications


2016: (with Marvin L. Miller and Ehud Ben Zvi), The Economy of Ancient Judah in Its Historical Context. Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2015. Pp. xii + 276.

2015: With Richard J. Bautch, Covenant in the Persian Period: From Genesis to Chronicles. Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2015.

2015: With Marvin L. Miller and Ehud Ben Zvi, The Economy of Ancient Judah in Its Historical Context. Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2015.

2013. Jews and Samaritans: The Origins and History of Their Early Relations. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
With Oded Lipschits and Manfred Oeming. 2011. Judah and the Judeans in the Achaemenid Period: Negotiating Identity in an International Context. Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns.
With Lester L. Grabbe and Deirdre N. Fulton. 2009. Exile and Restoration Revisited: Essays on the Babylonian and Persian Periods in Memory of Peter. R. Ackroyd. London: T&T Clark Continuum.
With Kenneth A. Ristau. 2009. Community Identity in Judean Historiography: Biblical and Comparative Perspectives. Winona Lake, IN : Eisenbrauns.
With Bernard M. Levinson). 2007. The Pentateuch as Torah: New Models for Understanding Its Promulgation and Acceptance. Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns. 
With Oded Lipschits and Rainer Albertz. 2007. Judah and the Judeans in the Fourth Century. Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns.
With Antoine Hirsch. 2004. Egypt, Israel, and the Ancient Mediterranean World: Festschrift Donald B. Redford. Probleme der Agyptologie 20. Leiden: E.J. Brill.
2004.  I Chronicles 1-9. Anchor Yale Bible 12. New York: Doubleday.
2004. I Chronicles 10-29. Anchor Yale Bible 12. New York: Doubleday.
With M. Patrick Graham and Steven L. McKenzie. 2003. The Chronicler as Theologian: Essays in Honor of Ralph W. Klein. JSTOTSup. 371. London: T&T Clark Continuum.
With Gordon McConville. 2000. Reconsidering Israel and Judah: The Deuteronomistic History in Recent Thought. Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns.
1994. Two Nations Under God: The Deuteronomistic History of Solomon and the Dual Monarchies. Vol. 2: The Reign of Jeroboam, the Fall of Israel, and the Reign of Josiah. Atlanta: Scholars Press.
1993. Two Nations Under God: The Deuteronomistic History of Solomon and the Dual Monarchies. Vol. 1: The Reign of Solomon and the Rise of Jeroboam. Atlanta: Scholars Press.
Book Chapters:

“Ahab, the Israelite Pawn of the Pagan Jezebel?ˮ in the Festschrift (ed. S. Weeks).

“Covenant in the Persian Period: The End of Israelite Religion?” in submission to the Journal of Hebrew Scriptures.

“The Altar at the Central Sanctuary and the Altar at Mt. Gerizim: One and the Same?” in The Samaritans (ed. C. Nihan; Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns, forthcoming).

“The Pentateuch and the Samaritans,” in the Oxford Handbook of the Pentateuch (ed. J. Baden and C. Nihan; Oxford: Oxford University Press, in preparation).

“Toward a Critical Edition of the Samaritan Pentateuch: Reflections on Issues and Methods,” in Reading the Bible in Ancient Traditions and  Modern Editions: Studies in Textual and Reception History in Honour of Peter  W. Flint (ed. Daniel Falk, Andrew Perrin, and Kyung S. Baek; Society of Biblical Literature Early Judaism and Its Literature Series; Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature Press, forthcoming).

‘“Cast Out of His Presence’: The Depopulation of Jerusalem and Judah in Kings,” in The Last of the Kings on Forced Migration: Exile in 2 Kings 24–25 (ed. John Ahn; Oudtestamentische Studiën; Leiden: Brill) in progress.

“Introduction” to and “Notes on 1 and 2 Chronicles,” in The New Oxford  Annotated Bible (ed. M. D. Coogan et al.; 5th ed.; New York: Oxford University Press, forthcoming).“The Sacred Sites of Gilgal, Mt. Gerizim, and Mt. Ebal and their Sacred Rites: Evidence from the Masoretic Text, the Samaritan Pentateuch, and the Dead Sea Scrolls,” in The Samaritans and Their Pentateuch (ed. Christophe Nihan; Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, forthcoming).

“20.3 Chronicles (Paraleipomena),” in The Textual History of the Bible (ed. Armin Lange, Emanuel Tov, and Russell Fuller; Leiden: Brill, forthcoming). Online: forthcoming.

2016: “How It Began and Did Not End: The History of Samari(t)an and Judean Relations in Antiquity,” in Conversations with the Biblical World: Proceedings of the Eastern Great Lakes Biblical Society and the Midwest Region Society of Biblical Literature 35 (2015; published in 2016), 189–211.
2016:  “What is the Core and What is the Periphery in Ezra-Nehemiah?” in Centres and Peripheries in the Early Second Temple Period (ed. Ehud Ben Zvi and Christoph Levin; Forschungen zum Alten Testament, I, ; Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2016) 269–96.

2015: “More than Friends? The Economic Relationship between Huram and Solomon Reconsidered,” in The Economy of Ancient Judah in Its Historical Context (ed. Marvin Miller, Ehud Ben Zvi, and Gary Knoppers; Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2015) 49–72.

2015: “The Theory and the Practice of Textual Criticism,” Hebrew Bible and Ancient Israel 3 (2014) 355–62.

2015: “The Construction of Judean Diasporic Identity in Ezra-Nehemiah,” Journal of Hebrew Scriptures 15 (2015) (

2015: (with Richard Bautch) “Introduction,” in Covenant in the Persian Period: From Genesis to Chronicles (ed. Richard J. Bautch and Gary N. Knoppers; Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2015) 1–19.

2015: “The Northern Context of the Law-Code in Deuteronomy,” in Hebrew Bible and Ancient Israel 4 (2015) 162–83.

2015. With Eric L. Welch.  “A Friend and an Enemy of the Omride State: Elijah, Elisha, and Prophetic-Royal Relations in the Deuteronomistic History,” in Enemies and Friends of the State: Ancient Prophecy in Context, ed. Christopher Rollston. Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns.

2015:  “Judah, Levi, David, Solomon, Jerusalem, and the Temple: Election and Covenant in Chronicles," in Covenant and Election in Exilic and Post-Exilic  Judaism: Studies of the Sofja Kovalevskaja Research Group on Early Jewish  Monotheism, Vol. V (ed. Nathan MacDonald; Forschungen zum Alten Testament, II, 79; Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2015) 139–68.

2015:  “When the Foreign Monarch Speaks about the Israelite Tabernacle,” in History, Memory, Hebrew Scriptures: A Festschrift for Ehud Ben Zvi (ed. Ian Douglas Wilson and Diana V. Edelman; Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2015) 49–63.

2013. ‘“To Him You must Listen’: The Prophetic Legislation in Deuteronomy and the Reformation of Classical Tradition in Chronicles,” in Chronicling the Chronicler: The Book of Chronicles and Early Second Temple Historiography, ed. Paul S. Evans and Tyler F. Williams, pp. 161-94. Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns.
2012. “The Samaritan Schism or the Judaization of Samaria? Reassessing Josephus’s Account of the Mt. Gerizim Temple,” in Making a Difference: Essays on the Bible and Judaism in Honour of Tamara Cohn Eskenazi, ed. David J. A. Clines, Kent Richards, and Jacob L. Wright, pp. 163-78. Sheffield: Sheffield Phoenix.
2012. “Samaritan Conceptions of Jewish Origins and Jewish Conceptions of Samaritan Origins: Any Common Ground?” in Die Samaritaner und die Bibel: Die Samaritaner in der biblischen Tradition—die jüdische und frühchristliche Geschichte in samaritanischen Quellen, ed. Jörg Frey, Ursula Schattner-Rieser, and Konrad Schmid, pp. 81-118. Berlin: de Gruyter.
2012. “Who or What is Israel in Third Isaiah?” in Let us Go up to Zion: Essays in Honour of H. G. M. Williamson on the Occasion of his Sixty-fifth Birthday, ed. Iain Provan and Mark J. Boda, pp. 152-65. Leiden: Brill.
2012. "The Relationship of the Deuteronomistic History to Chronicles: Was the Chronicler a Deuteronomist?" in Congress Volume, Helsinki 2010, ed. Martti Nissinen, pp. 307-41. Leiden: EJ Brill.
2011. ‘"Married into Moab": The Exogamy Practiced by Judah and his Descendants in the Judahite Lineages,” in Mixed Marriages: Intermarriage and Group Identity in the Second Temple Period, ed. Christian Frevel,  pp.170–191. London: Continuum.
2011. “Exile, Return, and Diaspora: Expatriates and Repatriates in Late Biblical Literature,” in Texts, Contexts and Readings in Postexilic Literature: Explorations into Historiography and Identity Negotiation in Hebrew Bible and Related Texts, ed. Louis C. Jonker, pp. 29-61. Tubingen: Mohr-Seibeck.
2011. “Parallel Torahs and Inner-Scriptural Interpretation: The Jewish and Samaritan Pentateuchs in Historical Perspective,” in The Pentateuch: International Perspectives on Current Research, ed. Thomas B. Dozeman, Konrad Schmid, and Baruch J. Schwartz, pp. 507-31. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck.

With Deirdre Fulton. 2011. “Lower Criticism and Higher Criticism: The Case of 1 Esdras,” in Was First Esdras First? An Investigation into the Priority of First Esdras, ed. L. S. Fried, pp. 11-29. Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature.

2011. “The Septuagint of 1–2 Chronicles.” Textual History of the Bible, ed. E. Tov. Leiden: Brill.

2011. “Saint or Sinner? Manasseh in Chronicles,” in Rewriting Biblical History: Essays on Chronicles and Ben Sira in Honour of Pancratius C. Beentjes, ed. H. W. M. Grol and J. Corley, pp. 211-29. Berlin: de Gruyter.

2011. “Did Jacob become Judah?: Assessing Israel’s Reconstitution in Deutero-Isaiah,” in Proceedings of the Sixth International meeting of the Société d’Études Samaritaines, Pápa, Hungary, 20–25 July 2008, ed. J. Zsengellér, pp. 39-70. Berlin: de Gruyter.

2010. “Some Aspects of Samaria’s Religious Culture during the Early Hellenistic Era,” in The Historian and the Bible: Essays in Honour of Lester L. Grabbe, ed. P. R. Davies and D. V. Edelman, pp. 159-74. London: T. & T. Clark Continuum.

2010. “Democratizing Revelation? Prophets, Seers, and Visionaries in Chronicles,” in Prophecy and the Prophets in Ancient Israel: Proceedings of the Oxford Old Testament Seminar, ed. J. Day, pp. 391-409. London: T & T Clark Continuum.

Judah, Levi, David, Solomon, Jerusalem, and the Temple: Election and Covenant in Chronicles," in Covenant and Election in Exilic and Post-Exilic Judaism: Studies of the Sofja Kovalevskaja Research Group on Early Jewish Monotheism, Vol. V (ed. Nathan MacDonald; Forschungen zum Alten Testament, II, 79; Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2015) 139–68.

“When the Foreign Monarch Speaks about the Israelite Tabernacle,” in History, Memory, Hebrew Scriptures: A Festschrift for Ehud Ben Zvi (ed. Ian Douglas Wilson and Diana V. Edelman; Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2015) 49–63

2013. “Evaluating New Editions of the Hebrew Scriptures,” Hebrew Bible and Ancient Israel 2: 1–5.


Gary Knoppers is the John A. O’Brien Professor of Theology at the University of Notre Dame. Previously, he was the Edwin Erle Sparks Professor of Classics and Ancient Mediterranean Studies and Jewish Studies at The Pennsylvania State University. Born in Canada, Knoppers received a B.A. in Philosophy from Calvin College College (1979), a M.Div from Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary (1982), and a M.A. (1986) and Ph.D from Harvard University in Near Eastern Studies (1988). He is a past president of the Canadian Society of Biblical Studies (2003–2004) and President of the Biblical Colloquium (2009–2011). He serves on the editorial boards of a number of journals, professional societies, and institutes, including Hebrew Bible and Ancient Israel, the Journal of Hebrew Scriptures, Studia Samaritana, Vetus Testamentum, the Internationaler Exegetischer Kommentar zum Alten Testament, and the W. F. Albright Institute of Archaeological Research. His scholarly specializations include Hebrew scriptures, ancient historiography, ancient Near Eastern and biblical law, inner-scriptural exegesis, textual criticism, and the history of early Jewish and Samaritan relations. Professor Knoppers has lectured widely in Canada, the United States, the United Kingdom, Europe, Israel, and South Africa. Among his recent publications are a two-volume commentary on I Chronicles in the Anchor Bible series (2004), a co-edited volume (with Bernard Levinson) on The Pentateuch as Torah (2007), and a co-edited volume (with Oded Lipschits and Manfred Oeming) on Judah and the Judeans in the Achaemenid Period (2011). His recent monograph, Jews and Samaritans: The Origins and History of Their Early Relations (Oxford University Press, 2013) received the R.B.Y Scott Award for Outstanding Book in Old Testament and Ancient Near Eastern Studies (2014). He is under contract to produce a commentary on II Chronicles for the Yale Anchor Bible and a three-volume commentary on I and II Kings (with Steven McKenzie) in the Internationaler Exegetischer Kommentar zum Alten Testament series.

Watch the video below to see Prof. Knoppers discuss the origins of an international Judaism. 


130 Malloy Hall
University of Notre Dame
Notre Dame, IN 46556
Telephone 574.631.7811
Fax: 574.631.4291